PAPER: Synthesis and application of a triazene–ferrocene modifier for immobilization and characterization of oligonucleotides at electrodes

Hansen, M. N.; Farjami, E.; Kristiansen, M.; Clima, L.; Pedersen, S. U.; Daasbjerg, K.; Ferapontova, E. E.; Gothelf, K. V.

J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 2474–2481, doi: 10.1021/jo9024368

Danish National Research Foundation: Centre for DNA Nanotechnology at Department of Chemistry and iNANO, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

Abstract

A new DNA modifier containing triazene, ferrocene, and activated ester functionalities was synthesized and applied for electrochemical grafting and characterization of DNA at glassy carbon (GC) and gold electrodes. The modifier was synthesized from ferrocenecarboxylic acid by attaching a phenyltriazene derivative to one of the ferrocene Cp rings, while the other Cp ring containing the carboxylic acid was converted to an activated ester. The modifier was conjugated to an amine-modified DNA sequence. For immobilization of the conjugate at Au or GC electrodes, the triazene was activated by dimethyl sulfate for release of the diazonium salt. The salt was reductively converted to the aryl radical which was readily immobilized at the surface. DNA grafted onto electrodes exhibited remarkable hybridization properties, as detected through a reversible shift in the redox potential of the Fc redox label upon repeated hybridization/denaturation procedures with a complementary target DNA sequence. By using a methylene blue (MB) labeled target DNA sequence the hybridization could also be followed through the MB redox potential. Electrochemical studies demonstrated that grafting through the triazene modifier can successfully compete with existing protocols for DNA immobilization through the commonly used alkanethiol linkers and diazonium salts. Furthermore, the triazene modifier provides a practical one-step immobilization procedure.

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